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Hackers access Twitter user data


In this Sept. 14, 2010 file photo, Twitter CEO Evan Williams makes a presentation about changes to the social network at Twitter headquarters in San Francisco.


The social media giant Twitter acknowledged that it had become the latest victim in a number of cyber-attacks against media companies, saying hackers may have gained access to information on 250,000 of its more than 200 million active users.

The company said in a blog post on Friday it detected attempts to gain access to its user data earlier in the week. It shut down one attack moments after it was detected.

But Twitter discovered that the attackers may have stolen user names, email addresses and encrypted passwords belonging to 250,000 users they describe as “a very small percentage of our users”. Nonetheless, the company reset the pilfered passwords and sent emails advising the affected users.

The online attack comes on the heels of recent hacks into the computer systems of U.S. media and technology companies, including The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal. Both American newspapers reported this week that their computer systems had been infiltrated by China-based hackers, likely to monitor media coverage the Chinese government deems important.

Bob Lord, Twitter’s director of information security, said in the blog that the attack “was not the work of amateurs, and we do not believe it was an isolated incident”.
Source - The Hindu

Invest more in rail

Just when the Indian Railways appeared to have given itself a shot in the arm by raising passenger fares across the board after a gap of almost a decade, it suffered a setback through the sharp hike in diesel prices for bulk consumers. The latter is likely to take away a significant part of the additional revenue that will be earned through higher fares. Though the diesel price hike was, of course, necessary, the problem is that it has not been applied to all consumers; dual pricing means that truck operators will be able to access subsidised diesel at the pump. The Railways will thereby end up buying diesel at a 20 per cent higher rate. Although rail transport is a far more cost-efficient and environmentally friendly method of haulage, the Railways has been losing market share to road transport steadily over time. Now, this additional cost disadvantage will make it difficult to hold on to whatever it has, not to speak of clawing back lost ground.

This setback to finances shortly before the Railway Budget will make it all the more difficult for the Railways to script a turnaround strategy. This is because the other major avenue for raising resources, hiking freight rates, is virtually closed. Freight rates have gone up to a point where any further rise will be resisted by customers and accentuate the loss in market share. Hope of financial recovery, thus, theoretically hinges on two measures. One is through cutting costs. This is difficult because there is no flexibility in outgo under heads such as salaries and pensions, dividend and fuel costs. Though there is always scope to cut wasteful expenditure, for a public sector organisation to do so under current governance realities is unlikely.

Significant additional revenue can be earned by carrying more freight tonnage. This may be partly facilitated by the expected recovery in the economy, which will raise freight offerings. But there is a catch here. Recently, the Railways has followed a flawed pattern for placing orders for new wagons — so that if there is actually more freight to carry, then the Railways may find itself in the invidious position of running into a wagon shortage. Under the circumstance, the only hope for earning more revenue in the coming financial year is by getting more out of existing capacity. The Indian Railways has over the years achieved substantial improvement in the utilisation of rolling stock and other infrastructure. The scope for this is critically dependent on balancing investment in areas such as signalling and goods yards; and commercially attractive new lines, even if short, which improve port connectivity. But it is precisely expenditure heads that affect capacity and safety, like depreciation reserve fund (track renewal), capital fund and development fund, which have experienced cuts in the current financial year. While the Indian Railways must improve existing capacity use and invest more to enhance its ability to carry more freight-earning goods, the government should also move fast on diesel price reforms and eliminate subsidies on retail prices, in order to allow the Railways a level playing field.

Grant in Aid on Child Labour


Funds under Grants-in-Aid Scheme are sanctioned directly to NGO for elimination of Child Labour in districts not covered by NCLP Scheme. Under the scheme voluntary agencies are given financial assistance by the Ministry of Labour on the recommendation of the State Government to the extent of 75% of the project cost for the rehabilitation of working children. Voluntary organizations have been receiving funds under the scheme since 1979-80. Currently, about 70 voluntary agencies are being assisted.

NCLP Scheme - Scheme of National Child Labour Project Revised-2003


The National Child Labour Policy was approved by the Cabinet on 14th August 1987 during the Seventh Five Year Plan Period. The policy was formulated with the basic objective of suitably rehabilitating the children withdrawn from employment thereby reducing the incidence of child labour in areas of known concentration of child labour.

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GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT BIHAR



Location
Bihar is located in the eastern part of the country (between 83°-30' to 88°-00' longitude). It is an entirely land–locked state, although the outlet to the sea through the port of Kolkata is not far away. Bihar lies mid-way between the humid West Bengal in the east and the sub humid Uttar Pradesh in the west which provides it with a transitional position in respect of climate, economy and culture. It is bounded by Nepal in the north and by Jharkhand in the south. The Bihar plain is divided into two unequal halves by the river Ganga which flows through the middle from west to east.


 Physical Features
Latitude      24°-20'-10" ~ 27°-31'-15" N
Longitude82°-19'-50" ~ 88°-17'-40" E
Rural Area92,257.51 sq. kms
Urban Area1,095.49 sq. kms
Total Area94,163.00 sq. kms
Height above Sea-Level173 Feet
Normal Rainfall1,205 mm
Avg. Number of Rainy Days52.5 Days in a Year
 Administrative Units
Divisions9
Districts38
Sub-Divisions101
CD Blocks534
Panchayats8,471
Number of Revenue Villages45,103
Number of Urban Agglomerations14
Number of Towns199
  - Statutory Towns139
  - Non-Statutory Towns60
Police Stations853
  - Civil Police Stations813
  - Railway Police Stations40
Police Districts43
  - Civil Police District39
  - Railway Police District4
 Key Statistics - as per 2011 Census (Provisional)
Population10,38,04,637
  - Male5,41,85,347
  - Female4,96,19,290
Population (0~6 Years Group)
  - In Absolute Numbers1,85,82,229
96,15,280
89,66,949
  - Percentage of Total Population17.90%
17.75%
18.07%
Literacy
  - In Absolute Numbers5,43,90,254
3,27,11,975
2,16,78,279
  - Percentage of Total Population63.82%
73.39%
53.33%
Decadal Population Growth (2001-2011) 
  - Absolute2,08,06,128
  - As Percentage25.07%
Highest Decadal Growth atMadhepura District (30.65%)
Lowest Decadal Growth atGopalganj District (18.83%)
  - Civil Police Stations813
  - Railway Police Stations40
Density of Population1,102 per sq kms
  - Highest DensitySheohar, 1882 per sq kms
  - Lowest DensityKaimur, 488 per sq kms
Most Populous DistrictPatna: 57,72,804
Least Populous DistrictSheikhpura: 6,34,927
Sex Ratio (Females/Thousand Males)916
  - Highest Ratio(Gopalganj) 1,015
  - Lowest Ratio(Munger and Bhagalpur) 879
Highest Literacy RateRohtas, 75.59%
Lowest Literacy RatePurnia, 52.49%
Average Population of a District27,31,701
Source -  http://gov.bih.nic.in/Profile/default.htm

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